Focused air vortices can have the force to blow out a candle or disturb papers from a few yards away.
Piezoelectric actuators are also employed to produce vibrations, and offer even more precise motion with less noise and in a smaller platform, but require higher voltages than the ERM and LRA implementations, and may be more fragile.
The first US patent for a tactile telephone was granted to Thomas D.
Haptic technology or kinesthetic communication recreates the sense of touch by applying forcesvibrationsor motions to the user.
Archived from the original on April 2,
Haptic simulators are used in medical simulators and flight simulators for pilot training.
Research has been done to simulate different kinds of taction by means of high-speed vibrations or other stimuli.
Artists working with haptic technology such as vibrotactile effectors are Christa Sommerer, Laurent Mignonneau, and Stahl Stenslie.